torture

فرضية العالم العادل وحد الحرابة

من ضمن بالونات الاختبار المتتالية منذ فترة، بالونة حد الحرابة. قام أعضاء من حزب النور السلفي بتقديم إقتراح لمشروع قانون يقنن هذا الحد. باختصار هذا الحد مصدره الشريعة الإسلامية والعقوبة تتكون من بتر أطراف الجسم أو الصلب أو الإعدام كعقاب رادع لكل من يقوم بجريمة عنيفة مثل السطو المسلح إلخ..

قام مركز النديم بنشر تلك الصورة على صفحة الفيسبوك. الصورة من السودان.

صورة أربعة أشخاص تم بتر أيديهم وأقدامهم
استقبلت الصفحة العديد من التعليقات التي استنكرت نشر الصورة وأتهم البعض المركز بكونه مركز "كفري" يهاجم الإسلام. وتسائل آخرون عن كيف لنا أن نرفض ما هو "صحيح الدين وذُكر في القرآن؟"

فرضيّة العالم العادل هي نظرية دخلت علم النفس في الستينيات بعد العديد من الأبحاث في مجال علم النفس الاجتماعي.

النظرية ببساطة تقول ان العديد من الناس يؤمنون بأن الدنيا عادلة وان الأفعال لها عواقب مناسبة، ويمكن التنبؤ بها، وأن هذه العواقب رد فعل طبيعي لأفعال الأشخاص.

العواقب تختلف بين الثقافات والأيديولوجيات المختلفة.

الإنسان يبني تلك الفرضية من تلقاء نفسه ليحافظ على سلامته أمام عالم يداهمه بأشكال مختلفة من المعاناة لأشخاص يراهم.

لذلك يعيد الشخص تفسير تلك الأحداث التي أدت للمعاناة بشكل يلام فيه الضحية وأن هو أو هي يستاهل أو تستاهل ما حدث. بذلك يستمر العالم في كونه عالم عادل آمن.

من الأمثلة العديدة لإلقاء اللوم على ضحية هو ما يحدث في حالات الاغتصاب، حيث تلام المرأة على ملبسها أو تواجدها في مكان ما. هناك أمثلة أخرى كثيرة مثل لوم المريض على مرضه أو الفقير إلخ.

أعتقد من الأمثلة المحلية الصارخة هو لوم فتاة التحرير التي سحلت وضربت ضربات كادت تؤدي لموتها بعبرات مثل "أيه اللي وداها هناك؟" و"هي لابسة عباية بكابسين ليه؟"

أتذكر لوم زغلول النجار لضحايا التسونامي في 2005 على أنهم بوذيون ولذلك كفرة وان هذا الحدث كان عذاب من الله لهم.

The poor state of Egypt's medico-legal authority

conference room at the medico-legal authority in Cairo

I took part in a training workshop for the medico-legal authority (forensic authority) in December in Cairo and last month in Assiut.

My part in the training was on the psychological consequences of torture. This was part of a training on the Istanbul Protocol, an internationally recognised guideline for medical and legal documentation of cases of torture. The IRCT managed to convince the director of the authority (chief forensic examiner) Dr. Ehsan Gorgy to provide such training, in exchange the authority will get them several digital cameras to help improve their documentation.

The authority was established in 1931 and is part of the Justice Ministry. It works within the legal framework of laws passed in 1952. A year before the structure of DNA was discovered and before many of the current advances in radiology and other fields of medicine. Currently the authority has an office in every governerate and a workforce of about 70+ doctors.

The authority was under intense scrutiny by the public following the Khaled Said case. It was accused of being complicit with the regime. This case is still a sore issue for forensic doctors and the public still carry lots of mistrust.

While exchanging contacts with one of the doctors at the end of a training day. One told me he has a Facebook account and is quite active on it but no longer writes his occupation as a forensic doctor fearing insults and shaming from his Facebook friends.

7 officers suspended for growing beards

7 police officers who tried to grow their beards on duty were quickly suspended by the ministry of interior. This level of firmness is never seen with officers who kill or torture.

The matter of officers growing beards is controversial.

Should the Egyptian police force respect the officers' personal choice and religion, provided they are treated equally and Christians are allowed to wear a cross. Or is it better if the image of law enforcement is a secular one?

Khaled Said 2

I remember when I first heard about Khaled Said's case. I didn't take notice of the name. Mohamed Abdel Aziz, the young and brilliant Nadim lawyer, sent and internal email saying that he contacted the family of a young man in Alexandria who they claim died from torture but the police says he fell from an ambulance stretcher.

Khaled Said

Honestly, I hoped that the police's story is correct. It was going to be another statement by the centre that will receive 300 hits and perhaps mentioned in one or two newspaper. I really wished it wouldn't be yet another family suffering a loss due to the brutality of the plague that is Egypt's police. Perhaps the family is mistaken. Will wait for more details.

Then Ayman Nour posted the photos released by the family before and after Khaled's death. This started an explosive response online. Specifically Facebook, where the We are all Khaled Said page became the nucleus. Everyone changed their profile picture to that of Khaled and joined the page (and other copycat pages).

I felt jealous about the response to Khaled Said's case. We had lots of other victims of torture who weren't dead who have gone through horrible experiences and were willing to speak about what happened to them. And others who lost relatives and the biggest exposure they got was from a small press conference in Hisham Mubarak law centre. In fact, after Khaled Said, there were others who sustained gruesome torture and didn't get the same response. We had photos of their bodies, videos of their testimonies, etc.. nothing received such response.

Torture and police, what now?

AlJazeera English Inside Story aired a 25 minutes interview with psychiatrist Dr. Ahmed Okasha, Hisham Safie Eldin a former police officer and Wael Omar a film maker about torture and the relationship between people and the police.

The program showed some footage of police officers and policemen protesting in the past few days. But didn't interview anyone from El Nadim centre for rehabilitation of victims of torture, which is the only centre in Egypt that worked in psychological and medical rehabilitation of victims of torture and police violence, documented incidents of torture through tens of publications and provides legal aid n(I worked there for 3 years).

Not even anyone from any human rights organisation who may have worked with victims of torture was interviewed.

This made the program overlook many aspects of why torture is systematic in the country and didn't mention any of the reports of torture in the hands of the military police that are being reported in the past few weeks.

Dr. Okasha attributed the problems to lack of trust between people and the police due to the previous practices of the police in the past. And that some officers enjoyed the torture as a form of sadism. He also went on saying that torture is enjoyable to torturers because of opiates released in the brain and so on.

Rehabilitation of Police Officers?

Since change from the top seems unlikely. Civil society should establish programs to reach out and provide alternative career options for current police officers who are willing to leave their jobs.

For example, they may help them transform into lawyers. NGOs may fund masters programs in different Law schools, provide them with extra tuition help, enroll them in human rights courses and help them establish small combined legal offices through grants.

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