Psychology at the Science Museum in London

The science museum in London has interesting items on display in the Psychology: Mind Your Head exhibit. Unfortunately, not all of them are on the website so here are some I photographed.

A skull showing phrenology markings with a device used to measure the features of a head for phrenological interpretation. Phrenology was a radical idea developed by Franz Joseph Gall in the 19th century. He said that different mental faculties like memory, sensation and instincts can be interpreted from the different features of a person's skull. It was against the religious thought at that time as the Catholic church refused the idea that the mind and it's faculties can be localized to physical structure i.e. the brain. Phrenology became very popular in Britain in the mid 19th century and it was used to compare the superiority of colonialists compared to the 'savages'. Now it's a pseudoscience.

Another phrenology related instrument.

The first world war introduced to psychology the idea that extreme stress could cause mental disorders. This was called war neurosis or shell shock. But before this realization it was considered cowardice and some soldiers in Britain were executed. Some of those who weren't executed were given an electrical shock in the back of the pharynx in an attempt to treat their hysterical behavior. Pictured above a Faradic battery that was used to apply the shock. Now the modern concept of shell shock is known as posttraumatic stress disorder.

Experimental Evidence for Synchronization to a Musical Beat in a Nonhuman Animal

Which one is wrong? HIV or Homosexuality?

      ``Habitual passive sodomite takes knee-chest position without shame during examination." —From Principles of Forensic Medicine by staff members of the Forensic & Clinical Toxicology Department. Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine.

Forensic examinations to prove habitual non-violent anal penetration are inherited from the textbooks of Victorian era medicine[1].

There are no peer-reviewed research that provides sound evidence in that area[2]. Because sodomy was decriminalized in western Europe by the beginning of the 20th century[1]. While countries that still considers such acts criminal are not publishers of sound peer-reviewed research.

Today, most of the descriptions inherited from old text books are easily discounted.

Can women make sperm?

UPDATE: All my speculations are likely to be not possible. There are parts of the Y chromosome essential for spermatogenesis. So what I speculate is fiction.

Men are obsolete. They are not needed anymore to sustain life on this planet. Sounds science fiction?

No, I am not talking about cloning, and making exact replicas. I am talking about women making sperms with an X chromosomes so they could reproduce and make more females. The sperm could be from one woman and the egg from a different one.

We are not there yet but the BBC has [this story|]: ;: ''Scientists say they have successfully made immature sperm cells from human bone marrow samples.''